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Ingredient Substitutions and Equivalents Source information

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This publication has useful information on substitutions and equivalents. However, remember your substituted ingredient may not perform just like the original in the recipe. Many substitutions or equivalents will perform the same: 4 ounces of spaghetti for 4 ounces of noodles. Other substitutes have similar properties but will not perform exactly the same. For example, 1 C of white sugar and 1 C of honey will make your dessert sweet, but the honey will also make the product brown more, add a flavor of its own, and require you to decrease other liquids in the recipe.

Each ingredient has a specific function, and substitutions could result in changes. Therefore, use substitutions for emergencies or when you don't mind a slight variation in the taste or substance.

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  Ingredient Amount Substitute or Equivalent
 Back to the Top! Allspice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon and 1/2 tsp ground cloves
 Back to the Top! Apples 1 lb 3 or 4 medium
3 C sliced
 Back to the Top! Apple pie spice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp cardamom
 Back to the Top! Arrowroot starch 1 1/2 tsp 1 Tbs flour
1 1/2 tsp cornstarch
 Back to the Top! Asparagus 1 lb 16 to 20 spears
 Back to the Top! Baking powder 1 tsp 1/3 tsp baking soda and 1/2 tsp cream of tartar
1/4 tsp baking soda and 1/2 C sour milk or buttermilk (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/2 C.)
1/4 tsp baking soda and 1/2 tsp vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make 1/2 C (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/2 C.)
 Back to the Top! Bananas 1 lb 3 or 4 medium
1 3/4 C mashed
 Back to the Top! Bay leaf 1 whole 1/4 tsp crushed
 Back to the Top! Beans, white 1 lb uncooked 2 C uncooked
6 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Beans, green 1 lb 3 C
 Back to the Top! Beans, kidney 1 lb uncooked 1 1/2 C uncooked
9 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Beans, lima, dry shelled 1 lb uncooked 3 C uncooked
6 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Beau Monde 1 tsp 1 tsp seasoning or seasoned salt
1/2 tsp salt
1/2 tsp Mei Yen seasoning
 Back to the Top! Beets without tops 1 lb 2 C sliced
 Back to the Top! Blackberries 1 qt 1 1/4 lb
3 to 4 C
 Back to the Top! Blueberries 1 lb 2 C
 Back to the Top! Bread 1 slice dry 1/3 C dry breadcrumbs
1 slice soft bread 3/4 C soft breadcrumbs
 Back to the Top! Broccoli 1 lb 2 C
 Back to the Top! Broth, beef or chicken 1 C 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 C boiling water
1 envelope powdered broth base dissolved in 1 C boiling water
1 1/2 tsp powdered broth base dissolved in 1 C boiling water
 Back to the Top! Butter 1 C 7/8 to 1 C hydrogenated fat and 1/2 tsp salt
7/8 C lard plus 1/2 tsp salt
1 C margarine
 Back to the Top! Buttermilk (sourmilk) 1 C 1 C plain yogurt
1 C whole or skim milk plus 1 Tbs lemon juice or white vinegar
1 C milk plus 1 3/4 tsp cream of tartar
 Back to the Top! Brussels sprouts 1 lb 4 C
 Back to the Top! Cabbage 1 lb shredded 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 C
1 lb cooked 2 C
 Back to the Top! Carrots 1 lb without tops 3 C
1 lb shredded 2 1/2 C
 Back to the Top! Catsup 1 C 1 C tomato sauce, 1/4 C brown sugar, and 2 Tbs vinegar (for use in cooking)
 Back to the Top! Cauliflower 1 lb 1 1/2 C
 Back to the Top! Celery 1 lb 2 bunches
 Back to the Top! Cheese 1 lb 4 to 5 C, grated
1 C grated 4 oz (approximately)
 Back to the Top! Cherries 1 lb 2 1/3 C
 Back to the Top! Chicken 1 1/2 lb boned 1 C cooked, diced
 Back to the Top! Chili sauce 1 C 1 C tomato sauce, 1/4 C brown sugar, 2 Tbs vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dash of ground cloves, and dash of allspice
1 C catsup, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dashes of ground cloves and allspice
 Back to the Top! Chives, finely chopped 2 tsp 2 tsp green onion tops, finely chopped
 Back to the Top! Chocolate, chips semisweet 1 oz 1 oz sweet cooking chocolate
 Back to the Top! Chocolate, semisweet 1 /3 oz 1 oz unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsp sugar
6 oz package 1 C
 Back to the Top! Chocolate, unsweetened 1 oz or square 3 Tbs cocoa plus 1 Tbs fat
 Back to the Top! Cocoa 1/4 C or 4 Tbs 1 oz (square) unsweetened chocolate (Decrease fat called for in recipe by 1/2 Tbs.)
 Back to the Top! Coconut 1 lb 5 C fresh coconut, shredded
 Back to the Top! Coconut cream 1 C 1 C whipping cream
 Back to the Top! Coconut milk 1 C 1 C whole or 2 milk
 Back to the Top! Coffee, ground 1 lb 80 Tbs (makes 40 to 50 C of brewed coffee)
 Back to the Top! Corn 1 doz ears 2 1/2 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Cornmeal, self-rising 1 C 7/8 C plain, 1 1/2 Tbs baking powder, and 1/2 tsp salt
1 lb 3 C
 Back to the Top! Corn syrup 1 C 7/8 C sugar and 2 Tbs water
7/8 C honey (Baked goods will brown more.)
 Back to the Top! Cornstarch (for thickening) 1 Tbs 2 Tbs all-purpose flour
2 Tbs granular tapioca
 Back to the Top! Cracker crumbs 3/4 C 1 C dry bread crumbs
 Back to the Top! Cranberries 1 lb 4 C
 Back to the Top! Cream, heavy
(36% to 40% fat)
1 C 3/4 C milk and 1/3 C butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
2 to 2 1/2 C whipped
 Back to the Top! Cream, light
(18% to 20% fat)
1 C 3/4 C milk and 3 Tbs butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
1 C evaporated milk, undiluted
 Back to the Top! Cream, whipped
Chill a 13-oz can of evaporated milk until ice crystals form. Add 1 tsp lemon juice. Whip until stiff.
 Back to the Top! Dates 1 lb 2 1/2 C pitted
 Back to the Top! Dill plant, fresh or dried 3 heads 1 Tbs dill seed
 Back to the Top! Egg, whole, uncooked 1 large (3 Tbs) 3 Tbs and 1 tsp thawed frozen egg
2 1/2 Tbs sifted, dry whole egg powder and 2 1/2 Tbs lukewarm water
2 yolks and 1 Tbs water (in cookies)
2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings, and similar mixture)
2 whites as a thickening agent
 Back to the Top! Eggs, uncooked 1 C 5 large eggs
6 medium eggs
 Back to the Top! Eggplant, diced, cooked 1 lb 2 1/2 C
 Back to the Top! Egg white 1 large (2 Tbs) 2 tsp thawed frozen egg white
2 Tbs sifted, dry egg white powder, and 2 Tbs lukewarm water
1 C 8 large egg whites
 Back to the Top! Egg yolk 1 yolk (1 1/2 Tbs) 3 1/2 Tbs thawed frozen egg yolk
2 Tbs sifted, dry egg yolk
1 C 12 large egg yolks
 Back to the Top! Flour, all-purpose (for thickening) 1 Tbs 1 1/2 tsp cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch, or rice starch
1 Tbs granular tapioca
1 Tbs waxy rice flour
2 Tbs browned flour
1 1/2 Tbs whole wheat flour
1/2 Tbs whole wheat flour and 1/2 Tbs all-purpose flour
1 Tbs quick-cooking tapioca
 Back to the Top! Flour, all-purpose 1 C sifted 1 C and 2 Tbs cake flour
1 C rolled oats, crushed
1/2 C cornmeal or soybean flour and /3 C all-purpose flour
1/2 C cornmeal, bran, rice flour, or whole wheat flour and 1/2 C all-purpose flour
3/4 C whole wheat flour or bran flour and 1/4 C all-purpose flour
1 C rye or rice flour
1/4 C soybean flour and 3/4 C all-purpose flour
1 lb 4 C sifted
3 1/3 C, unsifted
 Back to the Top! Flour, cake 1 lb 4 3/4 C
1 C sifted 1 C minus 2 Tbs sifted all-purpose flour (7/8 C)
 Back to the Top! Flour, self-rising 1 C 1 C minus 2 tsp all-purpose flour, 1 1/2 tsp baking powder, and 1/2 tsp salt
 Back to the Top! Flour, whole wheat 1 lb 3 3/4 C
Note: Substitutes for white flours added to most baked goods will result in a reduced volume and a heavier product. Substitute no more than 1/4 of white flour in a cake to ensure success. In other recipes, you can substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4 to 1/2 of white flour.
 Back to the Top! Garlic 1 clove, small 1/8 tsp garlic powder
 Back to the Top! Garlic salt 1 tsp 1/8 tsp garlic powder plus 7/8 tsp salt
 Back to the Top! Gelatin, flavored 3 oz 1 Tbs plain gelatin and 2 C fruit juice
 Back to the Top! Ginger 1/8 tsp 1 tsp candied ginger rinsed in water to remove sugar, then finely cut
1 Tbs raw ginger
 Back to the Top! Grapes 1 lb 2 C seeded
2 1/2 C seedless
 Back to the Top! Greens, cooked 1 lb 4 to 6 C
 Back to the Top! Herbs, fresh 1 Tbs, chopped 1/2 tsp dried crushed herbs
 Back to the Top! Honey 1 C 1 1/4 C sugar and 1/4 C water
 Back to the Top! Horseradish 1 Tbs 2 Tbs bottled fresh
 Back to the Top! Lemon 1 medium 1 to 3 Tbs juice
1 to 2 tsp grated peel
 Back to the Top! Lemon juice 1 tsp juice 1/2 tsp vinegar
 Back to the Top! Lemon peel, dried 1 tsp 1 to 2 tsp grated fresh lemon peel
grated peel of 1 medium lemon
1/2 tsp lemon extract
 Back to the Top! Lettuce head 1 lb 6 1/4 C
 Back to the Top! Leaf 1 lb 6 1/4 C
 Back to the Top! Romaine 1 lb 6 C
 Back to the Top! Endive 1 lb 4 1/4 C
 Back to the Top! Lime 1 medium 1 1/2 to 2 Tbs juice
 Back to the Top! Macaroni, 1-inch pieces 2 C uncooked (1/2 lb) 4 C cooked
2 C spaghetti, uncooked
4 C noodles, uncooked
8 oz any pasta
 Back to the Top! Maple sugar (grated and packed) 1/2 C 1 C maple syrup
1 Tbs 1 Tbs white, granulated sugar
 Back to the Top! Marshmallows, miniature 1 C 10 large
 Back to the Top! Mayonnaise (for use in salads and salad dressings) 1 C 1/2 C yogurt and 1/2 C mayonnaise
1 C sour cream
1 C cottage cheese pureed in a blender
 Back to the Top! Mei Yen seasoning 1 tsp 1 tsp Beau Monde seasoning
1/2 tsp salt
 Back to the Top! Milk, buttermilk (or sour) 1 C 1 C plain yogurt
1 C minus 1 Tbs sweet milk and 1 Tbs lemon juice or vinegar (Allow to stand 20 minutes at room temperature.)
1 C sweet milk and 1 3/4 tsp cream of tartar
 Back to the Top! Milk, skim 1 C 4 to 5 Tbs non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to make 1 C or follow manufacturer's directions
1/2 C evaporated milk and 1/2 C water
 Back to the Top! Milk, sweetened condensed 1 can (about 1 1/3 C) Heat the following ingredients until sugar and butter are dissolved: 1/3 C plus 2 Tbs evaporated milk, 1 C sugar, and 3 Tbs butter or margarine.
Add 1 C plus 2 Tbs dry milk to 1/2 C warm water. Mix well. Add 3/4 C sugar and 3 Tbs melted butter or margarine. Stir until smooth.
 Back to the Top! Milk, whole 1 C 1 C reconstituted non-fat dry milk (Add 2 Tbs butter or margarine, if desired.)
1/2 C evaporated milk and 1/2 C water
4 Tbs whole dry milk and 1 C water (or follow manufacturer's directions)
1 C fruit juice or 1 C potato water (for use in baking)
 Back to the Top! Mushrooms, fresh 1 lb 2 to 3 C whole
3 oz dried
5 C sliced
1 10-oz can (8 oz, drained weight)
 Back to the Top! Mushrooms, canned 4 oz 2 C sliced fresh
6 Tbs whole, dried mushrooms
 Back to the Top! Mustard, dry 1 tsp 1 Tbs prepared mustard
 Back to the Top! Noodles, 1-inch pieces 1 lb 6 to 8 C uncooked
8 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Okra 1 lb 2 1/4 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Onion, fresh 1 small rehydrate 1 Tbs instant minced onion
 Back to the Top! Onion powder 1 Tbs 1 medium onion, chopped
4 Tbs fresh chopped onion
 Back to the Top! Onions 1 lb 3 large onions
2 to 2 1/2 C chopped
 Back to the Top! Orange 1 medium 1/3 to 1/2 C juice
2 to 3 Tbs grated peel
 Back to the Top! Orange peel, dried 1 Tbs 2 to 3 Tbs grated orange peel
grated peel of 1 medium orange
2 tsp 1 tsp orange extract
 Back to the Top! Parsley, dried 1 tsp 3 tsp fresh parsley, chopped
 Back to the Top! Parsnips 1 lb 4 medium parsnips
2 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Peaches 1 lb 4 medium
2 C sliced
 Back to the Top! Pears 1 lb 4 medium
2 1/3 C sliced
 Back to the Top! Peas, green, in pod 1 lb 1 C shelled
1 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Peas, black-eyed 1 lb 2 1/3 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Pecans 1 lb 3 1/2 C nut meats
 Back to the Top! Peppers, green bell 1 Tbs dried 3 Tbs fresh green pepper, chopped
 Back to the Top! Peppers, red bell 1 Tbs dried 3 Tbs fresh red pepper, chopped
2 Tbs chopped pimiento
 Back to the Top! Peppermint, dried 1 Tbs 1/4 C chopped fresh mint
 Back to the Top! Pimiento 2 Tbs dried 1 Tbs dried red bell peppers, rehydrated
3 Tbs fresh red bell pepper, chopped
 Back to the Top! Plums 1 lb 8 to 20 whole
2 C halves
 Back to the Top! Potatoes, white 1 lb whole cooked, diced, or sliced 3 medium
2 1/4 C
1 lb mashed 1 3/4 C
 Back to the Top! Prunes 1 lb 2 1/4 C pitted
 Back to the Top! Pumpkin, mashed, cooked 1 lb 1 C
 Back to the Top! Pumpkin pie spice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ginger, 1/8 tsp allspice, and 1/8 tsp nutmeg
 Back to the Top! Radishes 6 oz 1 1/4 C sliced
  Raisins 1 lb 2 3/4 C
 Back to the Top! Rennet 1 tablet 1 Tbs liquid rennet
 Back to the Top! Rhubarb, fresh 1 lb 2 C cooked
4 to 8 pieces
 Back to the Top! Rice 1 lb 6 C cooked
2 C uncooked
1 C regular, uncooked 1 C uncooked converted rice
1 C uncooked brown rice
1 C uncooked wild rice
2 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Rice, instant 1 to 2 C uncooked 1 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Rutabaga 1 lb 2 1/2 C cubed
2 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Shortening, melted 1 C 1 C cooking oil (Do not substitute unless recipe calls for melted shortening.)
 Back to the Top! Shortening, solid (used in baking) 1 C 1 C minus 2 Tbs lard (7/8 C)
1 1/8 C butter (Decrease salt called for in recipe by 1/2 tsp.)
 Back to the Top! Sour cream, cultured 1 C 3/4 C sour milk or buttermilk and 1/3 C butter or margarine
Blend until smooth: 1/3 C buttermilk, 1 Tbs lemon juice, and 1 C cottage cheese
1 C plain yogurt
3/4 C milk, 3/4 tsp lemon juice, and 1/3 C butter or margarine
 Back to the Top! Spaghetti 1 lb 4 to 5 C 2-inch pieces
9 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Spearmint, dried 1 Tbs 1/4 C chopped fresh mint
 Back to the Top! Spinach 1 lb 4 C fresh
1 1/2 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Squash, summer 1 lb 1 /3 C cooked and mashed
 Back to the Top! Squash, winter 1 lb 1 C cooked and mashed
 Back to the Top! Strawberries 1 qt 4 C sliced
 Back to the Top! Sugar, brown 1 C firmly packed 1 C granulated sugar
1 lb 2 1/4 C firmly packed
 Back to the Top! Sugar, granulated 1 lb 2 1/4 C
1 tsp 1/8 tsp noncaloric sweetener solution or follow manufacturer's directions
1 C 1 1/2 C corn syrup (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 C.)
1 1/3 C molasses (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/3 C.)
1 C powdered sugar
1 C brown sugar, firmly packed
3/4 C honey (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 C; for each C of honey in baked goods, add 1/2 tsp soda.)
 Back to the Top! Sugar, powdered 1 lb 2 3/4 C
 Back to the Top! Sweet potatoes 1 lb 3 medium
 Back to the Top! Tapioca, granular 1 Tbs 2 Tbs pearl tapioca
 Back to the Top! Tomatoes, fresh 1 lb 3 to 4 small
2 C chopped 1 16-oz can (may need to drain)
 Back to the Top! Tomato juice 1 C 1/2 C tomato sauce and 1/2 C water
 Back to the Top! Turnips 1 lb 3 medium turnips
2 C cooked
 Back to the Top! Worcestershire sauce 1 tsp 1 tsp bottled steak sauce
 Back to the Top! Yeast, active 1 tsp cake yeast, compressed
 Back to the Top! dry 1 package (1/4 oz) active dry yeast
 Back to the Top! Yogurt, plain 1 C 1 C buttermilk
1 C cottage cheese blended until smooth
1 C sour cream

 

*This table came from the Mississippi State University Extension Service....  Back to the Top! Back to top

 
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