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Apple Varieties 5
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 Blue Pearmain
Blue Pearmain
Grown by Herb Teichman
Eau Clair, Michigan 1998

from Apples of New York- S.A. Beach:

"Occasional trees are found in the oldest home orchards of the state. It is rarely planted now. In some localities it bears well, but more often it is not a reliable cropper. It is apt to have a pretty high percentage of unmarketable fruit. The fruit is of mild flavor and does not rank high in quality. The skin is thick. When well colored it is beautiful, though not brilliant, being overcast with a dull bluish bloom. In common storage it does not keep late, and by January it often becomes shriveled. It is not a good market fruit and is not recommended for commercial planting.

 

At A Glance
name: Blue Pearmain
origin: American (?)
date: before 1833
parentage: unknown
harvest: October
season: November-February
Historical
" This is an old variety of uncertain origin but it is supposed to be an American Variety. On account of its hardiness it has often been planted in the home orchards of the more elevated regions of New York and New England during the last 75 years. Probably it has been in cultivation for a century or more. Kendrick mentions it as common in the vicinity of Boston in the early part of the 19th century.

Tree
"Tree becomes moderately large to large, moderately vigorous or on rich soil sometimes vigorous. Form spreading. In the nursery it is a slow, stiff grower. Twigs below medium, rather stout, nearly straight, rather blunt at tips, with large terminal buds; internodes medium to long. Bark very dark, being of a dull brownish-red; scarf-skin varies from thin to rather heavy; quite pubescent. Lenticels inconspicuous, scattering, below medium, roundish, raised. Buds above medium, moderately projecting, roundish, slightly pubescent, free. Leaves broad, coarsely serrated.

Fruit
"Fruit above medium to very large; pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish or inclined to oblate, sometimes a little inclined to conic, irregular, often obscurely ribbed, sometimes distinctly furrowed form the cavity nearly to the basin. Stem medium length to rather short, rather thick. Cavity moderately deep, obscurely furrowed, usually covered with orange-russet or greenish-russet. Calyx partly open; lobes acute. Basin medium in depth and width with concentric fray or russet lies, obscurely furrowed.
"Skin a little rough; yellow, washed and mottled with red, often deepening on one side to nearly solid red, splashed and striped with deep purplish-carmine and overspread with an abundant blue bloom from which the variety takes its name. Dots numerous, small, pale, mingled with others which are conspicuous very large, fray with russet center and often also mingled with irregular lines or flecks of dull green or russet. The large dots are characteristic of this variety as also of other varieties of the Blue Pearmain group.
"Calyx tube elongated conical approaching funnel-form. Stamens basal to median.
"core rather large, nearly axile, closed or somewhat open; core lines clasping or, with modified calyx tube, nearly meeting. Carpels broad, elongated or roundish, slightly tufted. Seeds medium or rather long, acuminate, rather light brown.
"Flesh yellowish, moderately firm, rather coarse, moderately juicy, mild subacid, decidedly and agreeable aromatic, good.
"Season. Comes into season in October. It may keep till March but often begins to shrivel after January.
"Use. Home and local market."


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 Red Canada
Red Canada (Steele's Red Winter)
Grown by: John Eastman
Wheeler, Michigan 1999

from Apples of New York- S.A. Beach:

"This is a red winter apple which belongs in the same group with Baldwin and Esopus Spitzenburg. When well gown and in prime condition it is one of the best apples of its season for dessert use on account of its desirable size, attractive form and color and superior quality. It is well adapted to either general or special markets and often brings more than average prices. The quality of the fruit varies much in different seasons and in different localities. When grown on heavy clay soils its quality in some seasons is decidedly inferior to that of Baldwin and would be rated only fair to good; but when grown on certain fertile soils of a gravelly or sandy nature in favorable seasons it develops color, flavor and quality fully equal to that of Esopus Spitzenburg. It stands heat well before going into storage and goes down gradually (26). Its season is somewhat variable. The commercial limit in ordinary storage is January or February, and in cold storage, April. Its season for home use usually extends from November to March or later. "Although the fruit may remain apparently sound it is apt to lose much of its high flavor after midwinter. The tree is somewhat lacking in hardiness and is but a moderate grower. It should be top-worked on some hardier and more vigorous variety such as Baldwin or Northern Spy. In some cases it is an annual bearer but more often it is not a sure cropper.
"Waugh recognizes Roseau as the correct name for an apple which commonly known in Ontario under the name of Canada Red. It is quite distinct from the variety above described. For further consideration of this matter the reader is referred to Roseau, page 292.
At A Glance
name: Canada Red
origin: New England (?)
date: before 1817
parentage: unknown
harvest: October
season: December-April
Historical
"This variety probably originated in New England but its origin is obscure. Thacher in 1822 described it under the name nonsuch and later Fessenden, Manning, Hovey and other New England writers recognized this name for the variety. In 1849 Cole described it as the Old Nonsuch. It appears to have been brought into Western New York from the vicinity of Toronto, Canada, and afterwards cultivated in this region under the name Canada Red. The earliest mention we find of the variety under the name Red Canada or Canada Red, as these names appear to have been used interchangeably, is that of Watts and Downing in 1847. In Michigan it has been often cultivated under the name of Steel's Red Winter. In some portion of Eastern New York it is grown under the name Bristol. It has been pretty generally distribute throughout the state. In some few localities its cultivation in commercial orchards is increasing but seldom has it been planted to any considerable extent, and, generally speaking, it is found only in old orchards.

Tree
"Tree medium to large, moderately vigorous to vigorous; branches short, stout, curved, crooked. Form upright to roundish, rather dense. Twigs medium in length, straight or nearly so, rather slender to moderately stout; internodes below medium to long. Bark olive-green tinged with reddish-brown, netted or streaked with thin scarf-skin, slightly pubescent. Lenticels scattering, not very conspicuous, small, round, slightly raised. Buds prominent, large to medium, long, narrow, plump, acute, free or nearly so, slightly pubescent. Leaves medium to broad, rather thin.

Fruit
"Fruit medium to nearly large, pretty uniform in size and shape. Form roundish inclined to conic and somewhat flattened at the base, nearly symmetrical and pretty regular but sometimes elliptical or obscurely ribbed and with sides a little unequal. Stem medium t rather slender, pubescent. Cavity usually large, acuminate, deep, wide, often partly russeted and with radiating green or russet rays, usually symmetrical, sometimes slightly furrowed. Calyx small, closed or partly open, pubescent. Basin small, usually narrow, shallow to moderately deep and rather abrupt, furrowed and sometimes slightly wrinkled, often somewhat oblique.
"Skin tough, nearly smooth especially toward the cavity, slightly rough about the basin, rather clear light yellow or green largely overspread in well-colored specimens with a fine deep red blush, indistinctly striped with deeper red. Dots conspicuous, grayish or fawn colored. Toward the cavity they are scattering, large and often elongated as in Baldwin and Esopus Spitzenburg, but as they converge toward the apex they become more numerous and smaller. Prevailing effect very attractive bright deep red.
"Calyx tube elongated cone-shape or somewhat funnel-form. Stamens marginal.
"Core sessile, axile or nearly so, medium to rather small; cells symmetrical, closed or slit; core lines clasping. Carpels usually smooth, roundish, narrowing somewhat toward the apex, mucronate, but slightly emarginate if at all. Seeds very numerous, medium to rather large, angular, long, moderately wide, plump, obtuse.
"Flesh whitish with yellow or greenish tinge, firm, crisp, rather fine-grained, tender, juicy, aromatic, rich, agreeable subacid but becoming rather too mild toward the close of the season, good to best."


 


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